In this section we present the images for measurements used in the inventory of human remains, along with captions and desciptions of each measurement.

Measurement definitions are derived from: * Langley et al. (2016) Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material 2.0. University of Tennessee and Lincoln Memorial University * Byrd & Adams (2003) Osteometric sorting of commingled human remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48:717-724. * Meadows and Langley (1992) Estimation of stature from metacarpal lengths. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 37:147-154.

Images by Elizabeth Lockett and Nandar Yukyi are derived from Langley et al. (2016).


Cranium

Cranium, Cra_01-06

Cra_01 Maximum Cranial Length (g-op, GOL): The straight-line distance from glabella (g) to opisthocranion (op) in the midsagittal plane.

Cra_02 Nasio-occipital Length (NOL): Maximum length in the midsagittal plane, measured from nasion (n).

Cranium, Cra_03

Cra_03 Maximum Cranial Breadth (eu-eu, XCB): The maximum width of the skull perpendicular to the mid-sagittal plane wherever it is located with the exception of the inferior temporal line and the immediate area surround the latter (i.e. the posterior roots of the zygomatic arches and supramastoid crest).

Cranium, Cra_04-

Cra_04 Bizygomatic Breadth (zy-zy, ZYB): The maximum breadth across the zygomatic arches, wherever found, perpendicular to the mid-sagittal plane.

Cra_05 Basion-Bregma Height (ba-b, BBH): The distance from basion (ba) to bregma (b).

Cra_06 Cranial Base Length (ba-n, BNL): The distance from nasion (n) to basion (ba).

Cra_07 Basion-Prosthion Length (ba-pr, BPL): The distance from basion (ba) to prosthion (pr).

Cra_08 Maxillo-Alveolar Breadth (ecm-ecm, MAB): The maximum breadth across the alveolar borders of the maxilla measured on the lateral surfaces at the location of the second maxillary molars (ecm).

Cra_09 Maxillo-Alveolar Length (pr-alv, MAL): The distance from prosthion (pr) to alveolon (alv).

Cra_10 Biauricular Breadth (ra-ra, AUB): The least exterior breadth across the roots of the zygomatic processes (ra).

Cranium, Cra_11-

Cra_11 Nasion-Prosthion Height (n-pr, NPH): The distance from nasion (n) to prosthion (pr), upper facial height.

Cra_12 Minimum Frontal Breadth (ft-ft, WFB): The distance between the right and left frontotemporale (ft).

Cra_13 Upper Facial Breadth (fmt-fmt): The distance between the right and left frontomalare temporale (fmt).

Cra_14 Nasal Height (n-ns, NLH): The average height from nasion (n) to the lowest point on the border of the nasal aperture on either side (ns).

Cra_15 Nasal Breadth (al-al, NLB): The maximum breadth of the nasal aperture (al-al).

Cranium, Cra_16-

Cra_16L and Cra_16R Orbital Breadth (d-ec, OBB): The distance from dacryon (d) to ectoconchion (ec), of the left (L) and right (R) orbit, respectively.

Cra_17L and Cra_17R Orbital Height (OBH): The distance between the superior and inferior orbital margins perpendicular to orbital breadth and bisecting the orbit into equal medial and lateral halves, of the left (L) and right (R) orbit, respectively.

Cra_18 Biorbital Breadth (ec-ec, EKB): The distance from left to right ectoconchion (ec) (Howells 1973:178; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #17; Langley et al. 2016:68, #18).

Cra_19 Interorbital Breadth (d-d, DKB): The distance between right and left dacryon (d) (Howells 1973:178; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #18; Langley et al. 2016:69, #19).

Cranium, Cra_20-22-

Cra_20 Frontal Chord (n-b, FRC): The distance from nasion (n) to bregma (b) taken in the mid-sagittal plane.

Cra_21 Parietal Chord (b-l, PAC): The distance from bregma (b) to lambda (l) taken in the mid-sagittal plane.

Cra_22 Occipital Chord (l-o, OCC): The distance from lambda (l) to opisthion (o) taken in the mid-sagittal plane (Howells 1973:182; Martin and Knussmann 1988:175 #31; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #21; Langley et al. 2016:69, #22).

Cra_23 Foramen Magnum Length (ba-o, FOL): The mid-sagittal distance from the most anterior point on the foramen magnum margin to opisthion (o).

Cra_24 Foramen Magnum Breadth (FOB): The distance between the lateral margins of the foramen magnum at the point of greatest lateral curvature.

Cranium, Cra_25

Cra_25L and Cra_25R Mastoid Height (MDH): The direct distance between porion (po) and mastoidale (ms) of the left (L) and right (R) sides, respectively.

Cra_26 Biasterionic Breadth (ast-ast, ASB): The straight-line distance from left to right asterion (ast).

Cranium, Cra_27-28

Cra_27 Bimaxillary Breadth (zma-zma, ZMB): The breadth across the maxillae, from the left to right zygomaxillare anterior (zma).

Cra_28 Zygoorbitale Breadth (zo-zo, ZOB): The distance between right and left zygoorbitale (zo) (Langley et al. 2016: 70, #28).


Mandible

Mandible_anterior

Mandible, anterior view.

Man_01 Chin Height (id-gn): The distance from infradentale (id) to gnathion (gn).

Mandible

Mandible, lateral left view.

Man_02L and Man_02R Height of the Mandibular Body: The distance from the alveolar process to the inferior border of the mandible at the level of the mental foramen (Martin and Knussmann 1988:183, #69.1; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #26; Langley et al. 2016:71, #30), of the left (L) and right (R) sides, respectively.

Man_03L and Man_03R Breadth of the Mandibular Body: The maximum breadth measured at the level of the mental foramen perpendicular to the long axis of the mandibular body (Martin and Knussmann 1988:183, #69.3; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #27; Langley et al. 2016:71, #31), of the left (L) and right (R) sides, respectively.

Man_04 Bigonial Breadth (go-go): The distance between the right and left gonion (go).

Man_05 Bicondylar Breadth (cdl-cdl): The distance between the most lateral points on the mandibular condyles (cdl).

Man_06L and Man_06R Minimum Ramus Breadth: The minimum breadth of the mandibular ramus measured perpendicular to the height of the ramus, of the left (L) and right (R) sides, respectively.

Man_07L and Man_07R Maximum Ramus Breadth: Distance between the most anterior point on the mandibular ramus and a line connecting the most posterior point on the condyle and the angle of the jaw (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #31), of the left (L) and right (R) sides, respectively.

Man_08 Maximum Ramus Height: The distance from gonion (go) to the highest point on the mandibular condyle.

Man_09 Mandibular Length: The distance from the anterior margin of the chin to the midpoint of a straight line extending from the posterior border of the right and left mandibular angles (Martin and Knussmann 1988:182, #68; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #33; Langley et al. 2016:72, #36).

Man_10 Mandibular Angle: The angle formed by inferior border of the corpus and the posterior border of the ramus.


Vertebrae

Vertebrae

Cer1_01 (Left) and Cer1_02 (Right) Maximum Length of the Superior Articular Facet of C1: Take the maximum length of the facet as it appears in any direction (Byrd and Adams 2015, #81A).

Cer1_03 (Left) and Cer1_04 (Right) Maximum Length of the Inferior Articular Facet of C1: Take the maximum length of the facet as it appears in any direction (Byrd and Adams 2015, #81M).

Cer2_01 (Left) and Cer2_02 (Right) Maximum Length of the Superior Articular Facet of C2: Take the maximum length of the facet as it appears in any direction (Byrd and Adams 2015, #81B).


Clavicle

Clavicle

Left clavicle, inferior view.

Cla_01 Maximum Length of the Clavicle: The maximum distance between the most extreme ends of the clavicle.

Cla_02 Maximum Diameter of the Clavicle at Midshaft: The maximum diameter of the bone measured at midshaft.

Cla_03 Minimum Diameter of the Clavicle at Midshaft: The minimum diameter of the bone measured at midshaft.

Cla_04 Sagittal (Anterior-Posterior) Diameter at Midshaft: The distance from the anterior to the posterior surface at midshaft.

Cla_05 Vertical (Superior-Inferior) Diameter at Midshaft: The distance from the superior to the inferior surface at midshaft.

Cla_06 Maximum Width at the Distal End: The maximum width of the distal end of the clavicle where the calipers are in contact with the rough attachment area, taken perpendicular to the shaft. Avoid angling the calipers (Byrd and Adams 2015, #37A).

Cla_07 Breadth at the Inflexion Point at the Distal End: Anchor the caliper in the concave curve of the inflexion point at the distal end of the clavicle and place the other jaw of the caliper on the opposite side usually on or near the tubercle (Byrd and Adams 2015, #37B).

Cla_08 Maximum Thickness at the Inflexion Point at the Distal End: The maximum thickness in the same vertical plane as the previous measurement (take perpendicular to breadth at the inflection point measurement) (Byrd and Adams 2015, #37C).

Cla_09 Maximum Anterior-Posterior Width at the Proximal End: The maximum anterior-posterior width of the proximal end (be sure to hold in anatomical position) (Byrd and Adams 2015, #37D).


Scapula

Scapula

Right scapula, posterior view.

Sca_01 Height of the Scapula (Anatomical Height): The distance from the most superior point of the cranial angle to the most interior point on the caudal angle (Martin and Knussmann 1988:197, #1; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #38; Langley et al. 2016:74, #41).

Sca_02 Breadth of the Scapula (Anatomical Breadth): The distance from the midpoint on the dorsal border of the glenoid fossa to midway between the two ridges of the scapular spine on the vertebral border.

Sca_03 Glenoid Cavity Breadth: Maximum distance from the ventral to dorsal margins (anterior/posterior) of the glenoid cavity, taken perpendicular to glenoid cavity height. In cases of severe lipping, this measurement should not be taken (Martin and Knussmann 1988:198, #13, Langley et al. 2016:74, #43).

Sca_04 Glenoid Cavity Height: The distance from the most superiorly located point on the margin of the glenoid cavity to the most inferiorly located point on the margin, taken perpendicular to glenoid cavity breadth. Often a distinct rim is visible (look at the fossa from the side and take the measurement at the apex of the ridges). In cases of severe lipping, this measurement should not be taken (Martin and Knussmann 1988: 198, #12; Langley et al. 2016: 74, #44; Byrd and Adams 2015, #39A).

Sca_05 Minimum Length from Scapular Notch to Axillary Border: This measurement is the minimum distance from the superior border (typically in the notch) to the axillary border. Anchor a jaw of the caliper in the notch and use the other jaw to find the minimum distance to a point on the axillary border (Byrd and Adams 2015, #39D).


Humerus

Humerus

Right humerus, anterior view.

Hum_01 Maximum Length of the Humerus: The distance from the most superior point on the head of the humerus to the most inferior point on the trochlea.

Hum_02 Epicondylar Breadth of the Humerus: The distance from the most laterally protruding point on the lateral epicondyle to the corresponding projection on the medial epicondyle (Martin and Knussmann 1988:199, #4; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #41; Langley et al. 2016:74, #46).

Hum_03 Maximum Vertical Diameter of Head: The distance between the most superior and inferior points on the border of the articular surface.

Hum_04 Maximum Diameter of the Humerus at Midshaft: The maximum diameter of the humeral shaft at midshaft.

Hum_05 Minimum Diameter of the Humerus at Midshaft: The minimum diameter of the humeral shaft at midshaft.

Hum_06 Total Breadth of the Capitulum-Trochlea: The breadth of the capitulum and trochlea at the distal humerus. One end of the sliding calipers is positioned parallel to the flat, spool-shaped surface of the trochlea (medial), and the other end is moved until it comes into contact with the capitulum (lateral) (Byrd and Adams 2003, #41A).

Hum_07 Anterior-Posterior Breadth of the Head: The maximum breadth of the humeral head taken in the anterior-posterior direction on the articular surface.  This measurement is taken perpendicular from the vertical diameter of the humeral head (Byrd and Adams 2003, #42A).

Hum_08 Minimum Diameter of the Diaphysis: The minimum diameter of the humeral diaphysis taken in any direction perpendicular to the shaft.  This measurement should be taken on the oval part of the shaft, superior to the flattening observed around the olecranon fossa and the lateral supracondylar ridge. Often it is found near midshaft (Byrd and Adams 2003, #44B).

Hum_09 Maximum Diameter of Diaphysis at the Deltoid Tuberosity: The maximum diameter of the diaphysis within the length of the deltoid tuberosity. Rotate and slide the element to find the maximum diameter (Byrd and Adams 2015, #44D).


Radius

Radius

Left radius, anterior view.

Rad_01 Maximum Length of the Radius: The distance from the most proximally positioned point on the head of the radius to the tip of the styloid process without regard to the long axis of the bone.

Rad_02 Maximum Diameter of the Radius at Midshaft: The maximum diameter of the radial shaft taken at midshaft.

Rad_03 Minimum Diameter of the Radius at Midshaft: The minimum diameter of the radial shaft taken at midshaft.

Rad_04 Maximum Diameter of the Head: The maximum diameter of the radial head measured on the margin of the head that articulates with the ulna. The bone is rotated until the maximum distance is obtained (Montagu 1960:68; Langley et al. 2016:75, #53; Byrd and Adams 2003, #47D).

Rad_05 Sagittal (Anterior-Posterior) Diameter at Midshaft: The distance between anterior and posterior surfaces at midshaft.

Rad_06 Transverse (Medial-Lateral) Diameter at Midshaft: The distance between medial and lateral surfaces at midshaft.

Rad_07 Maximum Diameter at the Radial Tuberosity: The maximum shaft diameter on the radial tuberosity.  Position the calipers around the tuberosity and rotate the bone until the maximum distance is obtained (Byrd and Adams 2003, #47A).

Rad_08 Maximum Diameter of the Diaphysis Distal to the Radial Tuberosity: The maximum shaft diameter distal to the radial tuberosity, positioned along the interosseous crest.  The bone should be rotated to find the maximum distance (Byrd and Adams 2003, #47B).

Rad_09 Minimum Diameter of the Diaphysis Distal to the Radial Tuberosity: The minimum shaft diameter anywhere distal to the radial tuberosity.  The bone may be rotated to find the minimum distance (Byrd and Adams 2003, #47C).

Rad_10 Breadth of the Distal Epiphysis: The maximum distance from the ulnar notch to the lateral aspect of the styloid process.  The medial protrusions (articular borders of the ulnar notch) are placed against the vertical endboard of the osteometric board (sliding calipers may also be used) and the movable portion is applied to the lateral surface of the styloid process to find the maximum breadth (Byrd and Adams 2015, #47E).


Ulna

Ulna

Right ulna, anterior view.

Uln_01 Maximum Length of the Ulna: The distance between the most proximal point on the olecranon and the most distal point on the styloid process.

Uln_02 Maximum Midshaft Diameter of the Ulna: The maximum diameter of the diaphysis at midshaft.

Uln_03 Minimum Midshaft Diameter of the Ulna: The minimum diameter of the diaphysis at midshaft.

Uln_04 Dorso-Volar (Anterior-Posterior) Diameter: The maximum diameter of the diaphysis where the crest exhibits the greatest development in the anterior-posterior (dorso-volar) plane (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #49).

Uln_05 Transverse (Medial-Lateral) Diameter: The distance between medial and lateral surfaces at the level of greatest crest development.

Uln_06 Physiological Length of the Ulna: The distance between the deepest point on the articular surfaceof the coronoid process on the guiding ridge and the most inferior point on the distal articular surface of the ulna.

Uln_07 Minimum Circumference of the Ulna: The least circumference near the distal end of the bone (Martin and Knussmann 1988:204, #3; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #52; Langley et al. 2016:76, #58).

Uln_08 Olecranon Breadth: The maximum breadth of the olecranon process, taken perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the semilunar notch (Martin and Knussmann 1988:206, #6; Langley et al. 2016:76, #59).

Uln_09 Minimum Diameter of the Diaphysis including Interosseous Crest: Locate the minimum diameter of the diaphysis along the portion of the bone that includes the interosseous crest. This measurement may not necessarily include the interosseous crest, but should be taken on that part of the shaft that exhibits the crest. This measurement is not always near the distal end of the crest (Byrd and Adams 2003, #51A).

Uln_10 Minimum Diameter of the Diaphysis: This measurement will be found near the distal epiphysis of the ulna. The bone should be rotated in order to locate the minimum distance (Byrd and Adams 2003, #51B).

Uln_11 Breadth of the Semilunar Notch: This is a measure of only the distal surface of the semilunar notch (the base).

Uln_12 Physiological Length (2016): The distance between the deepest point on the articular surface of the coronoid process on the guiding ridge and the most inferior point on the distal articular surface of the ulna.


Wrist and Hand

Hands

Maximum lengths of the carpals: This is the maximum length of the bone.

Instrument: sliding caliper

Comment: Move the bone up, down, and sideways in order to obtain the maximum distance.

Maximum Lengths of the Metacarpals: This is the maximum length of the bone.

Instrument: sliding caliper

Comment: Move the bone up, down, and sideways in order to obtain the maximum distance.

Midline Lengths of the Metacarpals: The length from the midline of the proximal articular surface to the midline of the distal articular surface.

Instrument: sliding caliper


Sacrum

Sacrum

Sacrum, anterior view.

Sac_01 Anterior Height of the Sacrum: The distance from the point on the promontory in the mid-sagittal plane to the corresponding point on the anterior border of the distal tip of the sacrum.

Sac_02 Anterior Breadth of the Sacrum: The maximum transverse breadth of the sacrum at most anterior projection of the auricular surfaces (Martin and Knussmann 1988:195, #5; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #54; Langley et al. 2016:76, #61).

Sac_03 Transverse Diameter of Sacral Segment 1: The distance between the two most lateral points on the superior articular surface measured perpendicular to the mid-sagittal plane (Martin and Knussmann 1988:195, #19).

Sac_04 Anterior-Posterior Diameter of Sacral Segment 1: The distance between the anterior and posterior borders of the superior articular surface of S1, taken in the mid-sagittal plane (Martin and Knussmann 1988:195, #18).

Sac_05 Maximum Breadth with the Osteometric Board: Position the sacrum on the osteometric board and find the maximum breadth of the alae (Byrd and Adams 2015, #55J).


Os coxa

Os coxa

Right os coxa. Left above and below: lateral view; right: medial view.

Osc_01 Maximum Innominate Height: The distance from the most superior point on the iliac crest to the most inferior point on the ischial tuberosity (Martin and Knussmann 1988:213, #1).

Osc_02 Maximum Iliac Breadth: The distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the posterior superior iliac spine (Martin and Knussmann 1988:213, #2; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #57; Langley et al. 2016:77, #65).

Osc_03 Pubis Length: The distance from the point in the acetabulum where the three elements of the os coxae meet to the upper end of the pubic symphysis.

Osc_04 Ischium Length: The measuring point in the acetabulum is defined under Pubis Length. The distance from the point in the acetabulum where the three elements meet to the deepest point on the ischial tuberosity.

Osc_05 Minimum Iliac Breadth (WIB): The minimum distance measured from the area below the anterior inferior iliac spine to the most inward curvature of the greater sciatic notch (Langley et al. 2016:77, #66; Byrd and Adams 2015, #59D).

Osc_06 Maximum Pubis Length (XPL): The distance between symphysion (the most superior point on the symphyseal face) to the farthest point on the acetabular rim.

Osc_07 Minimum Pubis Length (WPL): The distance between symphysion (the most superior point on the symphyseal face) to the closest point on the acetabular rim.

Osc_08 Ischial Length (ISL): The distance from the point on the acetabular rim where the iliac blade meets the acetabulum to the most medial point on the epiphysis of the ischial tuberosity.

Osc_09 Minimum Ischial Length (WISL): The distance from the most medial point on the epiphysis of the ischial tuberosity to the closest point on the acetabular rim.

Osc_10 Maximum Ischiopubic Ramus Length (XIRL): The distance from the most inferior point on the symphyseal face to the most distant point on the ischial tuberosity (Langley et al. 2016:78, #71).

Osc_11 Anterior Superior Iliac Spine to Symphysion (ASISS): The measurement from the apex of the anterior superior iliac spine (most projecting area or point) to symphysion (Langley et al. 2016:78, #72).

Osc_12 Maximum Posterior Superior Iliac Spine to Symphysion (PSISS): The maximum measurement from the posterior border of the posterior superior iliac spine to symphysion (Langley et al. 2016:78, #73).

Osc_13 Maximum Apical Border to Symphysion (WAS): The minimum measurement from symphysion to the apex (anterior border) of the auricular surface (Langley et al. 2016:78, #74).

Osc_14 Thickness of the Ilium at the Sciatic Notch: Position one end of the calipers along the arcuate line, adjacent to the apex of the auricular surface.  Slide the opposing end of the calipers to the posterior surface of the ilium to obtain the measurement (Byrd 2008, #59A).

Osc_15 Maximum Breadth of the Ischium: Position one end of the calipers in the obturator foramen and place the other end on the ischial tuberosity. Move the calipers around to find the maximum distance (Byrd and Adams 2015, #59B).

Osc_16 Minimum Breadth of the Pubis: Position the calipers along the iliopubic ramus; rotate and slide the calipers to find the minimum distance. Use the pointed edges of the calipers instead of the flat so as not to obstruct the measurement (Byrd and Adams 2015, #59C).

Osc_17 Maximum Diameter of the Acetabulum: The maximum distance of the acetabulum taken at any two points along the articular border of the lunate surface (look at the acetabulum from the side and take the measurement at the peaks of the ridges). This distance is commonly found in line with the iliac crest and the ischial tuberosity (Byrd 2008, #59E).


Femur

femur

Left femur, posterior view.

Fem_01 Maximum Length of the Femur: The distance from the most proximal point on the head of the femur to the most distal point on the medial or lateral femoral condyle (Martin and Knussmann 1988:216, #1).

Fem_02 Bicondylar Length of the Femur: The distance from the most proximal point on the head of the femur to a plane drawn between the inferior surfaces of the distal condyles.

Fem_03 Epicondylar Breadth of the Femur: The distance between the two most projecting points on the epicondyles.

Fem_04 Maximum Diameter of the Femur Head: The maximum diameter of the femur head measured on the border of the articular surface.

Fem_05 Medial-Lateral (Transverse) Subtrochanteric Diameter of the Femur: The transverse diameter of the proximal portion of the diaphysis at the point of its greatest lateral expansion.

Fem_06 Anterior-Posterior (Sagittal) Subtrochanteric Diameter of the Femur: The anterior-posterior diameter of the proximal end of the diaphysis measured perpendicular to the transverse diameter at the point of the greatest lateral expansion (See definition Fem_05 for approximate location on the femoral shaft for this measurement). This diameter is oriented perpendicular to the anterior surface of the femur neck (Martin and Knussman 1988:217, #10; Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #64; Langley et al. 2016:80, #80).

Fem_07 Anterior-Posterior (Sagittal) Midshaft Diameter: The distance between anterior and posterior surfaces measured approximately at the midpoint of the diaphysis, at the highest elevation of linea aspera.

Fem_08 Medial-Lateral (Transverse) Midshaft Diameter: The distance between the medial and lateral surfaces at midshaft, measured perpendicular to the anterior-posterior diameter (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #67).

Fem_09 Maximum Midshaft Diameter of the Femur: The maximum diameter of the femoral shaft taken at midshaft.

Fem_10 Minimum Midshaft Diameter of the Femur: The minimum diameter of the femoral shaft taken at midshaft.

Fem_11 Circumference of the Femur at Midshaft: The circumference measured at the midshaft.

Fem_12 Maximum Anterio-posterior Length of the Lateral Condyle: The distance between the most anterior and posterior points on the articular surface of the lateral condyle (Martin and Knussman 1988:219, #23).

Fem_13 Maximum Anterio-posterior Length of the Medial Condyle: The distance between the most anterior and posterior points on the articular surface of the medial condyle (Martin and Knussman 1988:219, #24).

Fem_14 Minimum Anterior-Posterior Diameter of the Diaphysis: The minimum anterior-posterior diameter anywhere along the diaphysis. The linea aspera and condyles should be utilized in order to orient the bone in anatomical position (use the condyles to orient) (Byrd and Adams 2003, #68A).

Fem_15 Minimum Medial-Lateral Diameter of the Diaphysis: The minimum medial-lateral diameter anywhere along the diaphysis.  The linea aspera and condyles should be utilized in order to orient the bone (should be taken in a perpendicular orientation to 68A) (Byrd and Adams 2003, #68B).

Fem_16 Minimum Superior-Inferior Neck Diameter: The minimum distance from the superior surface to the inferior surface on the femoral neck (Seidemann et al. 1998). Place caliper in the saddle of the neck (superior) and close inferior caliper arm, moving as necessary to find the minimum (Byrd and Adams 2015, #68D).

Fem_17 Maximum Diameter along the Linea Aspera: The maximum shaft diameter at any point along the linea aspera. As the bone should be rotated to obtain the maximum distance, the measurement does not necessarily have to include the linea aspera, though it likely will (Byrd and Adams 2003, #68E).

Fem_18 Upper Breadth of Femur (VHA): The distance from the apex of the head of the femur to the lateral side of the femur diaphysis, measured in line with the neck of the femur such that the line of measurement bisects the neck. Using sliding calipers, place the fixed jaw on the most prominent point on the femur head. Place the movable jaw on the lateral margin of the femur diaphysis so that the line formed between the two points splits the neck into two equal portions (Simmons et al. 1990).

Fem_19 Lateral Condyle Height (LCH): On the lateral condyle of the distal femur, it is the distance from the most superior point on the condyle to the most inferior point. Holding the femur in anatomical position with the distal condyles facing the observer, place the fixed jaw of the sliding caliper on the top of the condyle and place the movable jaw on the most inferior point on the condyle. The femur should be held so that it is possible to accurately judge the location of the most inferior point (Simmons et al. 1990).


Patella

Patella

Pat_01 Maximum Length of the Patella: Find the maximum length (superior to inferior) of the patella (Byrd and Adams 2015, #74.5A).

Pat_02 Maximum Breadth: Find the maximum breadth (medial to lateral) of the patella (Byrd and Adams 2015, #74.5B).

Pat_03 Maximum Thickness: Find the maximum thickness (anterior to posterior) of the patella (Byrd and Adams 2015, #74.5C).


Tibia

Tibia

Left tibia, anterior view.

Tib_01 Length of the Tibia: The distance from the superior articular surface of the lateral condyle of the tibia to the tip of the medial malleolus (Martin and Knussmann 1988:220, #1).

Tib_02 Maximum Proximal Epiphyseal Breadth of the Tibia: The maximum distance between the two most projecting point on the margins of the medial and lateral condyles of the proximal epiphysis.

Tib_03 Maximum Distal Epiphyseal Breadth: The distance between the most medial point on the medial malleolus and the lateral surface of the distal epiphysis.

Tib_04 Maximum Diameter at the Nutrient Foramen: The distance between the anterior crest and the posterior surface at the level of the nutrient foramen (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #72).

Tib_05 Transverse (Medial-Lateral) Diameter at the Nutrient Foramen: The straight line distance from the medial margin to the interosseous crest at the level of the nutrient foramen (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #73).

Tib_06 Circumference at the Nutrient Foramen: The circumference measured at the level of the nutrient foramen (Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, #74).

Tib_07 Maximum Midshaft Diameter of the Tibia: The maximum diameter of the tibial shaft taken at midshaft.

Tib_08 Minimum Midshaft Diameter of the Tibia: The minimum diameter of the tibial shaft taken at midshaft.

Tib_09 Circumference of the Tibia at the Midshaft: The circumference measured at the level of the midshaft (Martin and Knussmann 1988:574, #10a; Langley et al. 2016:82, #91).

Tib_10 Maximum Anterior-Posterior Diameter Distal to the Popliteal Line: This measurement should be taken at the most distal point of the popliteal line where it intersects with the margin of the diaphysis. The calipers are rotated to find the maximum distance (this is the maximum diameter of the diaphysis at this point).  Note that the correct location may be difficult to determine in very gracile individuals (Byrd and Adams 2003, #74A).

Tib_11 Minimum Anterior-Posterior Diameter: Locate the minimum anterior-posterior distance at any point on the tibial shaft. Use the medial malleolus and anterior crest to orient the bone, particularly when torsion is present (Byrd and Adams 2003, #74B).

Tib_12 Maximum Anterior-Posterior Distance of the Distal Articular Surface: Locate the maximum anterior-posterior distance of the distal articular surface by viewing the element from the side to find the peaks of the articular surface and measuring the distance between them. Use the medial malleolus to orient the bone (Byrd and Adams 2015, #74F).

Tib_13 Biarticular Breadth (BB): Maximum breadth of the proximal articular surface of the tibia as measured from the lateral edge of the lateral condyle to the medial edge of the medial condyle.  This is not the maximum breadth of the proximal tibia, but rather the maximum breadth of the articular surface.  Holding the tibia so that the proximal articular surface is in plain view, place the fixed jaw of the digital caliper on the most lateral edge of the lateral condyle.  Extend the movable jaw to what appears to be the most medial edge of the medial condyle. Pivot the movable jaw slightly to ensure that the maximum measure is found (Holland 1992).

Tib_14 Medial Condyle Articular Width (MCW): Maximum transverse width of the medial condyle as measured from lateral to medial edges.  The surface of the condyle generally is circumscribed by a slight rim, and points of the caliper should be placed on this rim.  Hold the tibia so that you can look directly down on the proximal articular surface.  Place the fixed jaw of the digital caliper on the medial edge of the condyle.  Extend the movable jaw to the lateral edge of the medial condyle.  Move the caliper anteriorly and then posteriorly, adjusting the jaws so that they always contact the opposing edges of the condyle. Find the maximum in this manner (Holland 1992).

Tib_15 Medial Condyle Articular Length (MCL): Similar but perpendicular to width.  Measurement should record maximum length from the anterior edge of the medial condyle to the posterior margin.  Hold the tibia so that you can look directly down on the proximal articular surface.  Place the fixed jaw of the digital caliper on the anterior edge of the medial condyle. Extend the movable jaw to the posterior edge of the condyle.  Move the caliper medially and then laterally, adjusting the jaws so that they always contact the opposing edges of the condyle. Find the maximum in this manner (Holland 1992).

Tib_16 Lateral Condyle Articular Length (LCL): Maximum length of the lateral condyle as measured in a manner similar to that for MCL (Holland 1992).


Fibula

Fibula

Left fibula, anterior view.

Fib_01 Maximum Length of the Fibula: The maximum distance between the most superior point on the fibular head and the most inferior point on the lateral malleolus (Martin and Knussmann 1988:222, #1).

Fib_02 Maximum Diameter of the Fibula at Midshaft: The maximum diameter at the midshaft. (Martin and Knussmann 1988:222, #2).

Fib_03 Maximum Diameter of the Diaphysis: This measurement should only be taken along the interosseous crest. Avoid measurements of the shaft near the epiphyses (Byrd and Adams 2015, #76A).

Fib_04 Minimum Diameter of the Diaphysis: The minimum distance at any point along the diaphysis (Byrd and Adams 2015, #76B).

Fib_05 Maximum Breadth at the Distal End: Place the one jaw of the caliper on the posterior portion (tubercle) and extend the other jaw to the opposite side (just above the malleolar articular surface) to find the maximum distance (Byrd and Adams 2015, #76C).


Ankle and foot

Calcaneus

Cal_01 Maximum Length of the Calcaneus (MCAL): The distance between the most posteriorly projecting point on the calcaneal tuberosity and the most anterior point on the superior margin of the articular facet for the cuboid measured in the sagittal plane (Martin and Knussmann 1988:225 #1).

Cal_02 Middle Breadth of the Calcaneus: The distance between the most laterally projecting point on the dorsal articular facet and the most medial point on the sustentaculum tali.

Cal_03 Minimum Height Distal to Articular Facets: Find the minimum height in the pinched area of the calcaneus distal to the articular facets and proximal to the calcaneal tuber (Byrd and Adams 2015, #78A).

Cal_04 Posterior Length of the Calcaneus (PCAL): Maximum length between the most anterior point of the posterior talar articular surface and the most posterior point of the calcaneus  (on the tuberosity ignoring any extensive exostoses). Hold the calcaneus in anatomical position so that you are looking down on the articular surface. Place the fixed jaw of the calipers on the posterior margin of the talar articular surface and extend the movable jaw to the posterior surface of the bone. Move the calipers slightly up and down and medially and laterally to find the maximum. Avoid any exostoses (Holland 1995; Byrd and Adams 2015, #78B).

Talus

Tal_01 Minimum Trochlear Breadth: This is the minimum breadth of the trochlea (superior articular surface). Place the flat surfaces of the jaws of the sliding calipers on either side of the articular surface with the jaws (approximately) parallel to the long axis of the bones. Close the jaws to take the minimum value (Byrd 2008, #79).

Tal_02 Maximum Length of the Talus (MTAL): The maximum length between the most anterior point of the head and the posterior tubercle (Holland, 1995; Byrd and Adams 2015, #79A).

Tal_03 Maximum Articular Length: The maximum length between the most anterior point of the head and the posterior surface of the tibial articulation (excluding the tubercle). Position the fixed caliper arm along the posterior surface of the tibial articulation and bring the calipers closed on the most anterior point of the head (Byrd and Adams 2015, #79B).

Feet

Maximum Lengths of the Tarsals: This is the maximum length of the bone.  * Cub_01 Maximum Length of the Cuboid (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80F) * Nav_01 Maximum Length of the Navicular (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80G) * Cf1_01 Maximum Length of the 1st Cuneiform (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80H) * Cf2_01 Maximum Length of the 2nd Cuneiform (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80I) * Cf3_01 Maximum Length of the 3rd Cuneiform (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80J)

Instrument: sliding caliper

Comment: Move the bone up, down, and sideways in order to obtain the maximum distance, in the same manner that maximum length is obtained for the humerus, femur, etc.

Maximum Lengths of the Metatarsals: This is the maximum length of the bone. * MT1_01 Maximum Length of the 1st Metatarsal (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80A) * MT2_01 Maximum Length of the 2nd Metatarsal (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80B) * MT3_01 Maximum Length of the 3rd Metatarsal (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80C) * MT4_01 Maximum Length of the 4th Metatarsal (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80D) * MT5_01 Maximum Length of the 5th Metatarsal (Byrd and Adams 2015, #80E)

Instrument: osteometric board or sliding caliper

Comment: Move the bone up, down, and sideways in order to obtain the maximum distance, in the same manner that maximum length is obtained for the humerus, femur, etc.


Measurement Standards Table

Links to measurement standards table, provided by OsteoCodeR.com are below.