In this section we present an annotated bibliography of analytical methods available in CoRA. This list will be updated as new methods are developed, published and added to the CoRA environment.


Bass WM (2005)

Human Osteology: A laboratory and field manual, 5th edition. Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia, MO.

Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH (1994)

Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains.  Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 44, Fayetteville, AR.

Phenice TW (1969)

A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 30:297-301. 

Rogers TL  (1999)

A visual method of determining the sex of skeletal remains using the distal humerus. Journal of Forensic Sciences 44:57-60.

Rogers NL, Flournoy LE, McCormick WF (2000)

The rhomboid fossa of the clavicle as a sex and age estimator. Journal of Forensic Sciences 45:61-67.

Walker PL (2005)

Greater sciatic notch morphology:  Sex, age, and population differences. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 127:385-391.

Walker PL (2008)

Sexing skulls using discriminant function analysis of visually assessed traits. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136:39-50.


Albert AM, Maples WR (1995)

Stages of epiphyseal union for thoracic and lumbar vertebral centra as a method of age determination for teenage and young adult skeletons. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40:623-633.

Berg GE (2008)

Pubic bone age estimation in adult women. Journal of Forensic Sciences 53:569-577.

Blankenship JA, Mincer HH, Anderson KM, Woods MA, Burton EL (2007)

Third molar development in the estimation of chronologic age in American Blacks as compared with Whites. Journal of Forensic Sciences 52:428-433.

Brooks S, Suchey JM (1990)

Skeletal age determination based upon the os pubis:  A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution 5:227-238.

Buckberry JL, Chamberlain AT (2002)

Age estimation from the auricular surface of the ilium:  Arevised method. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119:231-239.

İşcan MY, Loth SR, Wright RK (1984)

Age estimation from the rib by phase analysis: White males. Journal of Forensic Sciences 29:1094-1104.

İşcan MY, Loth SR, Wright RK (1985)

Age estimation from the rib by phase analysis:  White females. Journal of Forensic Sciences 30:853-863.

Kasper KA, Austin D, Kvanli AH, Rios TR, Senn DR (2009)

Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in a Texas Hispanic population: A comparison study. Journal of Forensic Sciences 54:651-657.

Langley-Shirley N, Jantz RL (2010)

A Bayesian approach to age estimation in modern Americans from the clavicle. Journal of Forensic Sciences 55:571-583.

Lovejoy CO, Meindl RS, Pryzbeck TR, Mensforth RP (1985)

Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: A new method for determination of adult skeletal age at death.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68:15-28.

Mann RW, Jantz RL, Bass WM, Willey PS (1991)

Maxillary suture obliteration: A visual method for estimating skeletal age. Journal of Forensic Sciences 36:781-791. 

McKern TW, Stewart TD (1957)

Skeletal Age Changes in Young American Males. Quartermaster Research and Development Command Technical Report EP-45, Natick, MA. 

Meindl RS, Lovejoy CO (1985)

Ectocranial Suture Closure: a revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68:57-66.

Mincer HH, Harris EF, Berryman HE (1993)

The A.B.F.O. study of third molar development and its use as an estimator of chronological age. Journal of Forensic Sciences 38:379-390.

Nawrocki SP (1998)

Regression formulae for the estimation of age from cranial suture closure. In Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd ed., edited by Kathy Reichs, pp. 293-317. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.

Osborne DL, Simmons TL, Nawrocki SP (2004)

Reconsidering the auricular surface as an indicator of age at death. Journal of Forensic Sciences 49:905-911.

Samworth R, Gowland R (2007)

Estimation of adult skeletal age-at-death: Statistical assumptions and applications. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 17:174-188.

Schaefer M, Black S, Scheuer L (2009)

Juvenile Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.

Schaefer MC (2008)

A summary of epiphyseal union timings in Bosnian males. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 18:536-545.


Edgar HJH (2013)

Estimation of ancestry using dental morphological characteristics. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58:S3-S8.

Gill GW (1998)

Craniofacial Criteria in the Skeletal Attribution of Race. In Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd ed., Reichs K (ed), pp.293-317. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.

Hefner J (2009)

Cranial nonmetric variation and estimating ancestry. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54:985-995.

Hefner J, Ousley SD (2014)

Statistical classification methods for estimating ancestry using morphoscopic traits. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 59:883-890. 

Rhine S (1990)

Non-metric skull racing.  In Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology, edited by G. W. Gill and S. Rhine, pp. 9-20. Maxwell Museum Anthropological Papers No. 4, Albuquerque, NM.


Knusel CJ, Outram AK (2004)

Fragmentation: The zonation method applied to fragmented human remains from archaeological and forensic contexts. Environmental Archaeology, 9:85-98.


Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH (1994)

Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains.  Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 44, Fayetteville, AR.

Byrd JE, Adams BJ (2003)

Osteometric sorting of commingled human remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences 48(4):717–724.

Byrd JE (2008)

Models and methods for osteometric sorting. In: Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains, edited by B. J. Adams and J. E. Byrd, pp. 199–220. Humana Press, New Jersey.

Byrd and Adams (2015)

Updated measurements for osteometric sorting. DPAA CIL document, dated 16 December 2015.

Dwight T (1905)

The size of the articular surfaces of the long bones as characteristic of sex; an anthropological study. American Journal of anatomy 4:19-32.

Holland TD (1992)

Estimation of adult stature from fragmentary tibias. Journal of Forensic Sciences 37:1223–1229.

Holland TD (1995)

Estimation of adult stature from the calcaneus and talus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 96:315–320.

Howells WW (1973)

Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference among Recent Human Population. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Volume 67, Cambridge, MA.

Hrdlicka A (1920)

Anthropometry. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 3:147-173.

Langley NR, Jantz LM, Ousley SD, Jantz RL, Milner GS (2016)

Data collection procedures for forensic skeletal material 2.0. University of Tennessee and Lincoln Memorial University: Tennessee.

Martin R (1957)

Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Dritte Aufl.

Martin R, Knussmann R (1988)

Anthropologie: handbuch der vergleichenden biologie des menschen. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Montagu MFA (1960)

A Handbook of Anthropometry. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

Moore-Jansen PM, Ousley SD, Jantz RJ (1994)

Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material. 3rd ed. Department of Anthropology Report of Investigations No. 48. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

Seidemann RM, Stojanowski CM, Doran GH (1998)

The use of the supero‐inferior femoral neck diameter as a sex assessor. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 107:305-313.

Simmons T, Jantz RL, Bass WM (1990)

Stature estimation from fragmentary femora: A revision of the Steele method. Journal of Forensic Sciences 35:628–636.